[1]陈家欢 陆 琦.田赋影响下珠江三角洲传统聚落聚居特点研究[J].小城镇建设,2019,(02):87-93.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1009-1483.2019.02.014]
 CHEN Jiahuan,LU Qi.Study on the Inhabiting Feature of the Traditional Settlements in the Pearl River Delta under the Influence of Feudal Land Tax[J].development of small cities﹠towns,2019,(02):87-93.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1009-1483.2019.02.014]
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田赋影响下珠江三角洲传统聚落聚居特点研究
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《小城镇建设》[ISSN:1009-1483/CN:11-4418/TU]

卷:
期数:
2019年02期
页码:
87-93
栏目:
文化保护与传承
出版日期:
2019-02-15

文章信息/Info

Title:
Study on the Inhabiting Feature of the Traditional Settlements in the Pearl River Delta under the Influence of Feudal Land Tax
文章编号:
1009-1483(2019)02-0087-07
作者:
陈家欢 陆 琦
华南理工大学建筑学院、亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室
华南理工大学建筑学院、亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室、广州市景观建筑重点实验室
Author(s):
CHEN Jiahuan LU Qi
关键词:
田赋传统乡村聚落聚居特点珠江三角洲
Keywords:
feudal land tax traditional countryside settlement inhabitation feature Pearl River Delta Region
分类号:
TU982.29;C912.82;F812.42
DOI:
10.3969/j.issn.1009-1483.2019.02.014
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
本文从田赋与土地所有制的关系谈起,概述了从周至明清以土地所有权变化为线索的田赋征收政策背景。自宋以降,经过长期的土地兼并,“民田”占田地总额已经远远超过“官田”,田赋数额也从明初的民轻官重逐渐向民重官轻倾斜。在这一背景下,通过分析珠三角地区“沙田”开垦的历史机遇和环境条件,阐述了珠江三角洲地区传统乡村聚居秩序建立的两条关键线索:以“民”“沙”之别为依据的族群认同和以沙田开垦为契机的人口迁徙。基于这两条线索,从区域视角出发,分析了明清珠江三角洲地区乡村聚落聚居形式的变迁特点,首先是以宗支祠宇的联合与“疍民”舟居的消弭为表现形式的乡村聚落的融合,其次是因“土客械斗”与 “宗族械斗”而凸显防御性特点的乡村聚落的分野,此外还有“商业资本”介入下的乡村聚落的职能转移。田赋制度最终影响了珠江三角洲传统乡村聚落的聚居特征,使其呈现出秩序化、防御化和群体化的主要特点。
Abstract:
This paper starts from the relationship between feudal land tax and land ownership system, and summarizes the background of the expropriation policy about land tax from Zhou to Ming and Qing Dynasties with the change of land ownership as a clue. Since the Song Dynasty, after a long period of land annexation "Mintian" accounted for the total amount of land far more than "Guantian", and the amount of land tax levied on Mintian is also gradually greater than the amount levied on Guantian. In this context, by analyzing the historical opportunities and environmental conditions of the "Shatian" reclamation in the Pearl River Delta region, two key clues for the establishment of the traditional rural settlement order in the Pearl River Delta region are expounded: The ethnic identity based on the difference between "Mintian" and "Shatian" and the population migration with the opportunity of "Shatian" reclamation. Based on these two clues, from the regional perspective, this paper analyzes the characteristics of the changes in the form of the village settlements in the Pearl River Delta region during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Firstly, it is the integration of the rural settlement in the form of the combination of ancestral temple and its branches the elimination of the boat dwelling of the "danmin". Secondly, it is the distinction of the rural settlements that highlight the defensive characteristics because of the "Hakka-Punti fighting" and the "intra-clan fighting". Besides, there is the functional transfer of the rural settlements under the intervention of "commercial capital". The system of feudal land tax ultimately affected the inhabitation features of the traditional rural settlements in the Pearl River Delta, making it present mainly in the form of regularization, defensibility and clustering.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
华南理工大学亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室自主研究课题项目“传统人居环境下的中国理景艺术研究”(编号:2017KB06)
国家自然科学基金面上项目“岭南汉民系乡村聚落可持续发展度研究”(编号:51278194)
更新日期/Last Update: 2019-02-15